Because Shanghai was the most important Chinese city in western eyes, the troops had to fight and hold on to the city as long as possible, rather than moving toward the defense lines along nameless towns en route to Nanjing. After winning some battles against the communists, a peace agreement was negotiated. On November 22, the leadership of the 19th Route Army revolted against the Kuomintang government, and established the Fujian People's Government, independent of the Republic of China. Sporadic shooting continued through the day until 4 pm, when Japanese headquarters ordered ships of the Third Fleet stationed in the Yangtze and the Huangpu River to open fire on Chinese positions in the city. THE BATTLE OF SHANGHAI 28 JANUARY - 3 MARCH 1932 | Imperial War Museums Do you have 5 minutes to help us improve our website? The rest of the Chinese troops crossed the Suzhou Creek and regrouped to engage the Japanese troops. The Japanese superiority of firepower forced the Chinese into a passive position, from which they could not mount counter-attacks until the Japanese were practically on top of them. Department of the Army. The same day, the Japanese issued another ultimatum, demanding that the Chinese Army retreat 20 km from the border of the Shanghai concessions, a demand promptly rejected. Thus, the front line was lengthened from metropolitan Shanghai along the Huangpu River to the northeast coastal districts. Login with Gmail. Negotiation was impossible and there was no alternative other than the spread of war into Central China. Chiang wanted the Chinese military presence to remain in Shanghai as long as possible to have a positive reflection on the ongoing Nine-Power Treaty conference that was in session in Brussels, with the hopes for possible intervention from Western powers. Description: 1932-Battle of Shanghai / Second Sino-Japanese War / China / 1931 - 1932 . The second battle was a Japanese victory that opened the Yangtze River valley to the Japanese. The defenders launched a desperate counterattack from 1 March, but were unable to dislodge the Japanese. He also made it clear that the Imperial Japanese Army regarded the shooting of a Japanese officer as humiliating, and that any further incident would escalate the situation. [8], On February 29, the Japanese 11th Infantry Division landed near Liuhe behind Chinese lines. In some Japanese sources, the battle is known as the "Second Shanghai Incident"(第二次上海事 … However, the Japanese then deployed tanks in the broad streets, enabling them to easily repel the Chinese attacks and defeat the encircling strategy. On October 28, Chiang arrived in the battlefield to boost the morale of his troops. The Battle of Shanghai, also called the Battle of Songhu, was the first major battle between the Chinese National Republican Army and the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese war in 1937. Japanese forces increased to over a 100,000 troops, backed by aerial and naval bombardments. The Battle of Shanghai, more known as the 28 Janaury Incident or the Shanghai Incident (January 28 – March 3, 1932) and also known as the Battle of Stalingrad on the Yangtze, was a battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, fought in the city of Shanghai, Republic of China. Peace negotiations collapsed as almost a million Chinese and Japanese troops poured into Shanghai and a battle which would rage for over three months. On 9 August, Lieutenant Isao Ōyama (大山勇夫) of the Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces came speeding in a car up to the gate of Hongqiao Airport. The agreement made Shanghai a demilitarized zone and forbade China to garrison troops in areas surrounding Shanghai, Suzhou, and Kunshan, while allowing the presence of a few Japanese units in the city. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. For further information about him, check the set 'China, German Military Adviser'. The "Chinese Hindenburg Line," which the government had spent millions to construct and was the final line of defense between Shanghai and Nanjing, collapsed in only two weeks. Chiang Kai-shek's strategy of bringing the fight to Shanghai to force Japan to adopt an east-to-west direction of attack also prevented Japan from cutting right into Central China. Chiang Kai-shek and his staff, the most prominent including Chen Cheng and Gu Zhutong, began taking over command duties from Zhang. [23] The bombing was not an intended attack on the International Settlement: the four errant bombs were intended for the Japanese cruiser Izumo, which was moored nearby in the Whangpoo (Huangpu) river, adjacent to the Bund. Chiang Kai-shek ordered the remaining troops of the 98th Division to defend the town. On 10 August, the Japanese Consul General demanded that the Chinese withdraw the Peace Preservation Corps and dismantle their defense works around the city. Song (淞) comes from Wusong (吳凇), an alternate name of Suzhou Creek, which runs through Shanghai. The second stage lasted from August 23 to October 26, 1937, during which the Japanese launched amphibious landings on the Jiangsu coast and the two armies fought a Stalingrad-type house-to-house battle, with the Japanese attempting to gain control of the city and the surrounding regions. The Japanese issued an ultimatum to the Shanghai Municipal Council demanding public condemnation and monetary compensation by the Chinese for any Japanese property damaged in the monk incident, and demanding that the Chinese government take active steps to suppress further anti-Japanese protests in the city. American entry into the international response brought new hope to the Chinese, and Chiang Kai-shek again reiterated the need for his troops to hold on to Shanghai to prove that China was indeed worth fighting for. The incident heightened the tensions between the Chinese and Japanese forces in Shanghai. Read more about First Battle of Shanghai. The Chinese soldiers had to rely primarily on small-caliber weapons in their defense of Shanghai, against an overwhelming Japanese onslaught of air, naval, and armored striking power. In conventional military terms, if this had been a war between opponents with clear end goals and a look to how the war would have ended, Shanghai, like … The Japanese aim was to cross the Yunzaobang and take the town of Dachang (大場), which was the communications link between Chinese troops in downtown Shanghai and the northwest outlying towns. For the 1932 Japanese attack on Shanghai, see January 28 incident. By: TheArchivalCollection. However, even these divisions were not sufficiently supported by combined arms. As the Japanese came closer to Nanjing, the fighting grew in both frequency and severity.[27]. In the chaos that ensued many Chinese units were broken up and lost contact with their communications officers who had the maps and layouts to the fortifications. Edgerton (op.cit. However, Chiang Kai-shek's order to have his troops make one death stand after another greatly sapped his strength and directly caused his army's inability to defend Nanjing for even two weeks. In the event of a general engagement between the Chinese and Japanese in Chapei, and if the situation demands, our front line will be manned by a small force. Japanese infantry would then advance under smoke screens, with armored support. Around 9 am on August 13, the Chinese Peace Preservation Corps exchanged small arms fire with Japanese troops in the Zhabei, Wusong, and Jiangwan districts of Shanghai. Photo used by P. R. Dept. It was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war, later described as "Stalingrad on the Yangtze". On August 15, the Japanese formed the Shanghai Expeditionary Army (SEF), composed of the 3rd and 11th Divisions, under the command of General Iwane Matsui. 14 February, 1932 Refugees flee over the Soochow Creek across the Markham Road Bridge and away from the fighting in Chapei. The Chinese offensive in the urban center had ground to a halt, and the fighting in downtown Shanghai essentially became a stalemate with both sides suffering heavy losses and making minimal changes in the front line. Find the perfect shanghai 1932 stock photo. Japan attacked Shanghai in 1932, and again in 1937. By the end of September, the Chinese had been almost bled dry and were forced to give up Luodian. Even though the Battle of Shanghai was only the first of the twenty-two major battles fought between China and Japan, Chiang Kai-shek's decision to send his best troops into the battle had significant repercussions. 1937 battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War, This article is about the 1937 battle. [17][18][19] In what became known as "Black Saturday", bombs from ROCAF aircraft fell in the Shanghai International Settlement. The focus of the support wo… total run time = 10:20,, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2010, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles needing additional references from October 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Japanese capture of Shanghai (excluding the, * Van de Ven, Hans, "The Battle of Shanghai," Ch. However, the Chinese fought against great odds and tried to hold on to the coastal villages as long as they could. In effect, Chiang Kai-shek was effectively only the head of a loose coalition, rather than the commander-in-chief of a united fighting force. The perceived strength of the Chinese response resulted in major reinforcement for Japanese units. After winning the battles around Shanghai, the SEF suggested the Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo to attack Nanking. This conflict between the two nations developed into a full-scale war known as the Second Sino-Japanese war. While the western powers were in session to mediate the situation, the Chinese troops were making their final stand in Shanghai and had all hopes for a western intervention that would save China from collapse. Despite their numerical superiority, the defense of Luodian would prove impossible for the Chinese. Chinese troops could only advance, under the cover of machine gun fire, by getting close enough to the emplacements to kill those within with hand grenades. The 2nd Battalion also in Shanghai had 20 Vickers Mark E tanks, 4 VCL Tanks and Carden Loyd tankettes. The 88th Division was to attack Japanese army headquarters near Zhabei, and the 87th Division was to attack the reinforced Kung-ta Textile Mill, where the Japanese naval command was located. On February 12, American, British and French representatives brokered a half-day cease fire for humanitarian relief to civilians caught in the crossfire. The Chinese deployed three tank battalions in the battle and its immediate aftermath. Kunshan was lost in only two days, and the remaining troops began moving toward the Wufu Line fortifications on November 13. The 3rd Battalion had 10 Panzer I light tanks, 20 CV35 tankettes, and some Leichter Panzerspähwagen armored cars. It was not unheard of for the Chinese to lose an entire garrison to such bombardments. All Chinese units were ordered to move toward western towns such as Kunshan, and then from there enter the final defense lines to stop the Japanese from reaching Nanjing. Photograph taken in 1933 by Karl Theodor Martin. Facing the increasing Japanese military presence in Shanghai, Chinese troops were also being deployed to the Shanghai area beginning on 11 August. However, the situation was bleak. Then, in August, a Japanese officer was shot by Chinese troops in Shanghai and the war suddenly expanded. Japan demanded the withdrawal of Chinese troops from Shanghai, while the Chinese representative Yu Hung-chun dismissed the Japanese demand, stating that the terms of ceasefire have already been violated by Japan. Japan had been making attempts into Chinese territory since 1932. The Chinese divisions were able to hold on to Zhabei, Jiangwan, and other downtown positions for three months, until situations in other areas made it strategically impossible to continue defending these positions. Le Service aérien de la Marine impériale japonaise y procéda à l'un des premiers bombardements stratégiques de l'histoire. The Chinese concentrated some 300,000 soldiers there, while the Japanese amassed more than 100,000 troops, supported by naval gunfire, tanks, and aircraft. On the other hand, Chinese citizens feverishly welcomed the presence of Chinese troops in the city. Battle of Shanghai (1937) - One of The Largest and Bloodiest Battles of The Second Sino-Japanese War - China culture Shanghai was the first major urban battle, and the first long, large scale conflict of attrition in the Second World War. Chiang Kai-shek himself would eventually become the commander of the third war zone which covers the entirety of Shanghai. La bataille de Shanghai opposa en 1937 l'Armée impériale japonaise à l'Armée nationale révolutionnaire chinoise pendant la guerre sino-japonaise.. The beginning of full-scale war meant that China would no longer stand idly and allow Japan to conquer its territories piece by piece as it had done in the past. However, while Chiang's initial assessment was overly optimistic, China continued to fight for eight more years until Japan finally surrendered after the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. The Japanese advance to Nanjing can be characterized as a "forced march". By now, the Chinese army needed between eight and twelve divisions to match the fighting strength of just one Japanese division. At the most intense moments, positions would change hands five times a day. However, through three months of intense fighting, Chinese troop strength had been greatly reduced. No need to register, buy now! On August 14, the ROCAF bombed Japanese Navy flagship Izumo. The Shanghai Incident, as the Japanese would name the upcoming battle, began at dawn on the 28 th January 1932. As early as October 12, the Japanese chiefs of staff had already formulated plans to force a landing in Jinshanwei (金山衛), a town located on the northern bank of Hangzhou Bay, south of the Shanghai region. Memorial service in Shanghai, China for the Chinese soldiers fallen during the First Battle of Shanghai, mid-1932: Further Reading. On August 22, the Japanese 3rd, 8th, and 11th Divisions made an amphibious assault under the cover of naval bombardment and proceeded to land in Chuanshakou (川沙口), Shizilin (獅子林), and Baoshan (寶山), towns on the northeast coast some fifty kilometers (31 miles) away from downtown Shanghai. The Wufu Line was penetrated on November 19, and the Chinese troops then moved toward Xicheng Line, which they were forced to give up on November 26 in the midst of the onslaught. First Battle of Shanghai. On September 6 Baoshan fell. Battle of Shanghai Close combat in the city of Shanghai. Japanese planes would also accompany the infantry and strafe Chinese reinforcements. The frontline fighter aircraft of the Chinese Air Force at the beginning of full-scale hostilities consisted primarily of Curtiss Hawk IIs and Hawk IIIs (many license-built at the CAMCO plant at the Jianqiao Airbase) and the Boeing P-26 Model 281 Peashooter. 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